Work on Bilton Street School started in late 1831, being completed in April 1832. The school could hold around 150 – 160 schoolboys aged between five and fifteen (a nearby school educated 50 girls), and the building belonged to the Reverend Jocelyn Willey, who also provided financial support for the school. The number of pupils increased to 220 boys by 1836 and was run under Lancasterian, or British School, lines which meant that it welcomed children from all religious denomination and beliefs.
In 1855 a large quantity of lead was stolen from buildings attached to the school, and the school buildings were frequently used for meetings held by the anti-temperance league. The new Education Act in the 1870s meant that many schools closed, but Bilton Street School remained opened, uniting with the northern group of the York National Schools.
By the 1930s the school took infants only, becoming a voluntary aided infants’ school in 1950 before finally closing in 1956. Both the school, and the street it was situated on, have since been demolished and replaced by industrial buildings.