Within the city walls, the road layout had changed relatively little from the fifteenth century until the road widening schemes of the nineteenth century. The biggest change in the city’s transport links however occured in the nineteenth century with the arrival of the railways in the 1830s and the development of the North Eastern Railway, as well as railway pioneers such as George Hudson and George Leeman. The country’s national rail museum is also situated in the city, the National Railway Museum. Not quite as long lived, operating from 1880 and 1935 was the city’s tram network.

In 1934 a joint service was set up by York City Council and the West Yorkshire Road Car Company to operate buses in the city and this joint undertaking operated for over 50 years, before it was sold to the private sector following the bus deregulation laws in the 1980s.