York County Hospital opened in 1740, a charitable institution run from a rented house in Monkgate. Health-care however remained generally for the wealthy, or those fortunate enough to receive assistance from charitable causes. Disease was common in the slum areas, and cholera spread from the Water Lanes area of the city.

The City Hospital was opened in York in 1941, situated on Haxby Road, and remained in use until 1996 when its functions were taken over by York District Hospital.

Other medical buildings in the city included the Lunatic Asylum and Lady Hewley’s Hospital.