Archbishops of York

Archbishops of York

York became an archbishopric in 735, and there have also been different ways of counting the number of Archbishops, so there is some variation in the numbering based on these different methods.

1 Paulinus 626-633
[Vacant from 633 to 664]
2 Chad 664-669
3 Wilfrid 664-678
4 Bosa 678-706
5 John of Beverley 706-714
6 Wilfrid II 714-732
7 Ecgbert 732 766
8 Æthelbert 766-780
9 Eanbald I 780-796
10 Eanbald II 796-808
11 Wulfsige 808-834
12 Wigmund 834-854
13 Wulfhere 854-c.896 Fled the Danes in 872, returned in 873
14 Æthelbald 900-c.916 Sometimes known as Æthelbeald, Athelbald, or Ethelbald
15 Hrotheweard c.916-931 Sometimes known as Lodeward
16 Wulfstan I 931-956
17 Oskytel c.958 971 Translated from Dorchester. Also known as Oscytel
18 Edwald 971 Also known as Edwaldus or Ethelwold
19 Oswald 971-992 Held both the sees of York and Worcester. Canonised
20 Ealdwulf 995-1002 Held both the sees of York and Worcester
21 Wulfstan II 1002-1023 Held both the sees of York and Worcester until 1016. Also known as Lupus
22 Ælfric Puttoc 1023-1041 Held the sees of York and Worcester 1040-41. Ejected from both in 1041
23 Cynesige 1051-1060 Also known as Kynsige
24 Ealdred 1061-1069 Held the see of Worcester 1046-61, of Hereford 1056-60, and of York 1061-69.
25 Thomas I 1070-1100 Also known as Thomas of Bayeux
26 Gerard 1100-1108 Translated from Hereford
27 Thomas II 1109-1114
28 Thurstan 1119-1140 He was elected in 1114, but wasn’t consecrated until 1119
29 William FitzHerbert 1143-1147 Deposed by Pope Eugene III. Canonised in 1226
30 Henry Murdac 1147-1153 Formerly Abbot of Fountains Abbey
(29) William FitzHerbert 1153-1154 Restored by Pope Anastasius IV. Canonised in 1226
31 Roger de Pont L’Evêque 1154-1181 Formerly Archdeacon of Canterbury
32 Geoffrey Plantagenet 1191-1212 Formerly Bishop-elect of Lincoln. Elected Archbishop in 1189, but was only consecrated in 1191
33 Walter de Gray 1216-1255 Translated from Worcester
34 Sewal de Bovil 1256-1258 Formerly Dean of York
35 Godfrey Ludham 1258-1265 Formerly Dean of York. Also known as Godfrey Kineton
36 Walter Giffard 1266-1279 Translated from Bath and Wells
37 William de Wickwane 1279-1285
38 John le Romeyn 1286-1296 Also known as John Romanus
39 Henry of Newark 1298-1299 Formerly Dean of York
40 Thomas of Corbridge 1300-1304
41 William Greenfield 1306-1315
42 William Melton 1317-1340
43 William Zouche 1342-1352 Also known as William de la Zouche
44 Cardinal John Thoresby 1353-1373 Translated from Worcester. Created a Cardinal in 1361
45 Alexander Neville 1374-1388 Translated to St Andrew’s in 1388
46 Thomas Arundel 1388-1396 Translated from Ely; later moved to Canterbury
47 Robert Waldby 1397-1398 Translated from Chichester
48 Richard le Scrope 1398-1405 Translated from Lichfield
49 Henry Bowet 1407-1423 Translated from Bath and Wells
50 Cardinal John Kempe 1426-1452 Translated from London; created a Cardinal in 1439
51 William Booth 1452-1464 Translated from Lichfield
52 George Neville 1465-1476 Translated from Exeter
53 Lawrence Booth 1476-1480 Translated from Durham
54 Thomas Rotherham 1480-1500 Translated from Lincoln
55 Thomas Savage 1501-1507 Translated from London
56 Cardinal Christopher Bainbridge 1508-1514 Translated from Durham; created a Cardinal in 1511
57 Cardinal Thomas Wolsey 1514-1530 Translated from Lincoln in 1514; created a Cardinal in 1515
58 Edward Lee 1531-1544 Translated from St David’s
59 Robert Holgate 1545-1554 Translated from Llandaff
60 Nicholas Heath 1555-1559 Translated from Worcester
61 Thomas Young 1561-1568 Translated from St David’s
62 Edmund Grindal 1570-1576 Translated from London; later moved to Canterbury
63 Edwin Sandys 1577-1588 Translated from London
64 John Piers 1589-1594 Translated from Salisbury
65 Matthew Hutton 1595-1606 Translated from Durham
66 Tobias Matthew 1606-1628 Translated from Durham
67 George Montaigne 1628 Translated from Durham
68 Samuel Harsnett 1629-1631 Translated from Norwich
69 Richard Neile 1632-1640 Translated from Winchester
70 John Williams 1641-1650 Translated from Lincoln
– Vacant 1650-1660
71 Accepted Frewen 1660-1664 Translated from Lichfield
72 Richard Sterne 1664-1683 Translated from Carlisle
73 John Dolben 1683-1686 Translated from Rochester
74 Thomas Lamplugh 1688-1691 Translated from Exeter
75 John Sharp 1691-1714 Formerly Dean of Canterbury
76 Sir William Dawes 1714-1724 Translated from Chester
77 Lancelot Blackburne 1724-1743 Translated from Exeter
78 Thomas Herring 1743-1747 Translated from Bangor; later moved to Canterbury
79 Matthew Hutton 1747-1757 Translated from Bangor; later moved to Canterbury
80 John Gilbert 1757-1761 Translated from Salisbury
81 Robert Hay Drummond 1761-1776 Translated from Salisbury
82 William Markham 1776-1807 Translated from Chester
83 Edward Venables-Vernon-Harcourt 1808-1847 Translated from Carlisle
84 Thomas Musgrave 1847-1860 Translated from Hereford
85 Charles Thomas Longley 1860-1862 Translated from Durham; later moved to Canterbury
86 William Thomson 1862-1890 Translated from Gloucester
87 William Connor Magee 1891 Translated from Peterborough
88 William Dalrymple Maclagan 1891-1908 Translated from Lichfield
89 Cosmo Gordon Lang 1909-1928 Translated from Stepney; later moved to Canterbury
90 William Temple 1929-1942 Translated from Manchester; later moved to Canterbury
91 Cyril Forster Garbett 1942-1955 Translated from Winchester
92 Arthur Michael Ramsey 1956-1961 Translated from Durham; later moved to Canterbury
93 Frederick Donald Coggan 1961-1974 Translated from Bradford; later moved to Canterbury
94 Stuart Yarworth Blanch 1975-1983 Translated from Liverpool
95 John Stapylton Habgood 1983-1995 Translated from Durham
96 David Hope 1995-2005 Translated from London
97 John Sentamu 2005-present Translated from Birmingham

Anglo-Saxon York

The Anglo-Saxon period, also known as the Anglian period, followed on from the Roman occupation and continued through until the Norman conquest in 1066.

After the Romans left York, although many of the local population stayed in the area, the Anglo-Saxons started to occupy the area from around the early fifth century. It is thought that this may have started because Romans got Anglo-Saxon mercenaries to defend the city, and their descendants stayed.

The city layout remained similar, although some flooded areas were reclaimed by Edwin of Northumbria in the seventh century. York remained the seat of a bishop, as in the early seventh century Paulinus of York – who was later made a saint – set up a wooden church. This church was the St. Peter the Apostle Church which marked the baptism of Edwin on Easter Day in 627. It is then thought that Edwin built a stone church on the site of the wooden one, although this was damaged by fire in 741. This in turn was replaced with a Saxon Cathedral which was burned by the Normans. The current York Minster is built on the site of these churches.

The city walls which were built by the Romans remained intact during the Anglian period, and there is a suggestion that the Anglian Tower was built during this period to repair one section of the walls. This section was rediscovered in 1839 after having become buried over the centuries, and there is an information plaque noting that the section of walls was repaired during the reign of King Edwin (610-632). It is thought however that this might be inaccurate, as although this section of the wall is built in a different manner, it could also date from the late Roman period.

The Roman base, of which remains are still visible under the Minster, were used to at least the Viking invasion in the late ninth century. Although little remains from the Anglian period, the foundations and remains of several Anglian houses have been uncovered during various archaeological digs.

Ernest Allenby

This article is one of a series about individuals who lived in the city and fought in the First World War.

Ernest Allenby

Ernest Allenby was born in 1880 in Helmsley, in the Walmgate area of the city, the son of Joseph Homes and Sarah A Homes. Allenby married Rose England on 19th September 1904 at St Denys Church in the city and they had three children, Leonard (born 13th February 1906), Olive (born 15th February 1908) and Edna Maud (born 3rd May 1913). All three children were born at 20, Walmgate, and in 1911 he was living at 10, Dundee Street, off the Hull Road in the city.

Allenby was 35 years old when he signed up to join the British Army on 8th December 1915, having never before been a member of the armed forces. He lived at 17, Walmgate and worked as a bricklayer. His military records show that when he signed up he was 5’6″ tall and had a chest measurement of 41.5 inches. He received a medical some months later on 12th July 1917 and the medical officer, J Hodgson, noted that he had a rather severe varix (dilated vein).

He was posted to the British Expeditionary Forces in France on 18th July 1917 as a Lance Corporal and he survived the war, returning to his new home at 25, St. John Street in the city. He was discharged on 25th January 1919. He died in 1953 at the age of 73, the year after his wife, Rose, died. His son Leonard died in October 1993.

All Saints Church, Pavement

All Saints’ is a parish church on Pavement which has had a church on the site since around 685AD. The church currently on the site dates from the twelfth century, although much of the present building dates from the fourteenth century. Parts of the church were rebuilt in 1782 following street widening, with the present chancel having previously been the crossing into the chancel.

There is a lantern in the tower of the church, which is said to have been to guide travellers into York. There is also a church in St Dunstan’s in the West, in Fleet Street in London, which copies this design. After the First World War, the tower changed to become a war memorial for those who had died in the Great War. Internally, the pulpit dates from 1634 and is hexagonal and made for Henry Ayscough. John Wesley was later to preach from this pulpit. The lectern is even older, dating from the fifteenth century having been moved from St Crux church, but the base isn’t as old.

The tower of the church itself was built in around 1400, with the clerestory and battlements added around forty years later. There is a three bay aisled nave and a one bay chancel. The windows are early perpendicular, arguably rather over restored in 1835 to 1837, when the tower and lantern were and also restored as an early part of the Victorian desire to modernise older churches. As with some other churches, unfortunately often too much of the history of a building was taken away in an attempt to make improvements.

In 1887, there was some rebuilding of the east end by Fisher and Hepper, from the designs by George Edmund Street. Much work was also done on the stained glass windows, the east windows repaired and renewed in 1887, the south windows in 1897 and 1903, in the case of the latter, primarily by Charles Kempe. The west end stained glass window dates from the fourteenth century.

Worth noting are the pews in the church, which have shields from the various city guilds at the end of each row. Also worthy of mention is the door knocker, which is from the twelfth century, and portrays the head of a lion swallowing a bearded head. This is part of a strong connection with the City as 34 Lord Mayors are buried in the church. Another link is with the Royal Dragoon Guards, and this is their regimental church. In 1959, the Princess Royal, in her role as Patron of the Yorkshire Branch of the Royal Society of St. George, attended a service in the church to commemorate St George’s Day.

There is a monument in the church to Tate Wilkinson (October 27th 1739 until November 16th 1803), which was moved from the nearby St Crux church. He had been for 34 years the manager of York Theatre Royal, and had a religious background as his father had been a clergyman.

Aldwark

Aldwark

The name Aldwark comes from the Roman “old werk” meaning a fortified place, and the road stretches from Goodramgate to Peasholme Green. The street was also known as Aldwork in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

On the corner of Aldwark and Peasholme Green is St. Anthony’s Guildhall, which now houses the Borthwick Institute, with the Merchant Tailors’ Company also using the Common Hall on Aldwark for their meetings. The Institute was founded by the York Civic Trust in 1953 and contains a large number of documents from Diocesan and Probate Registers.

A fire broke out on Aldwark on 9th October 1881.

From 1885 until 1975 there was a synagogue on the road, and Hunt’s Brewery was also sited on Aldwark until the 1950s. The first permanent Methodist Chapel was sited at 60, Aldgate and Jonathan Martin (who attempted to burn down York Minster) lodged here for a time.

Businesses in the street in 1828 included:

John Barker, corn merchants, no. 32
John Cluderay, joiners, no. 11
Thomas Robinson, joiners
Robert Wisker, joiners, no. 2
Henry Hartley, painters, no. 52
Scruton & Simpson, tailors, no. 57
James Burton, whitesmiths, no. 4